College dating timeline

Boerhaave published Swammerdam's 'Book of Nature' in the 1730s which was translated into English in 1758.

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The Torpedo fish and other species were widely known to deliver shocks and were often used in this way for therapeutic reasons.

However, electrical theory at the time dictated that electricity would always flow through conductors and diffuse away from areas of high charge to low charge. John Walsh, fellow of the Royal Society and Member of Parliament, obtains a visible spark from an electric eel Electrophorus electricus. Mr Sowdon and Mr Hawes, apothecary, report on the surprising effects of electricity in a case report of recovery from sudden death published in the annual report of the newly founded Humane Society now the Royal Humane Society.

William Harvey had developed similar ideas but they were never published. De Homine (Treatise of Man); 1662: Moyardum & leffen, Leiden.

Jan Swammerdam, a Dutchman, disproves Descartes' mechanistic theory of animal motion by removing the heart of a living frog and showing that it was still able to swim.

He demonstrates the transfer of static electrical charge to a cork ball across 150 metres of wet hemp thread.

Later he found that the transfer could be achieved over greater distances by using brass wire.

Now when one of the persons present touched accidentally and lightly the inner crural nerves of the frog with the point of a scalpel, all the muscles of the legs seemed to contract again and again as if they were affected by powerful cramps." He later showed that direct contact with the electrical generator or the ground through an electrical conductor would lead to a muscle contraction.

Galvani also used brass hooks that attached to the frog's spinal cord and were suspended from an iron railing in a part of his garden.

(He is also the first to use the word 'computer' - referring to people who compute calendars.) Browne, Sir Thomas. London The work of Rene Descartes, French Philosopher, is published (after his death) and explains human movement in terms of the complex mechanical interaction of threads, pores, passages and 'animal spirits'.

Pseudodoxia Epidemica: Or, enquiries Into Very Many Received Tenents, and Commonly Presumed Truths. He had worked on his ideas in the 1630s but had abandoned publication because of the persecution of other radical thinkers such as Galileo.

Ewald Georg von Kliest of Pomerania invented the same device independently.

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